Indian Journal of Dermatology
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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 65  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 33-37

Antimelanocyte antibodies: A possible role in patients with vitiligo

1 Department of Dermatology, Andrology and STDs, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
2 Department of Clinical Pathology, Banha Educational Hospital, Banha, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Mohammad A Gaballah
Department of Dermatology, Andrology and STDs, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, El-Gomhoria St., Mansoura
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijd.IJD_344_18

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Background: Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting skin disorder with multifactorial pathogenesis including genetic, autoimmune, and neuronal factors. Both humoral- and cell-mediated immunities are supposed to have a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Patients with vitiligo have an increased concentration of circulating autoantibodies that are specific to melanocyte cytoplasm and surface antigens that related to the extent of the disease. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of antimelanocyte antibodies (AMAs), complement 3 and 4 (C3 and C4), and antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Materials and Methods: This study included 49 patients with nonsegmental vitiligo and 36 healthy individuals as a control group. All participants were subjected to detailed history, general examination, and detailed dermatological examination of the skin, hair, nails, and oral mucosa. The severity of vitiligo was assessed according to the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI). AMA, C3 and C4, and ANA serum levels were measured for patients and controls. Results: ANA, AMA, and C4 levels were significantly higher in the sera of patients than in controls. ANA, AMA, and C4 serum levels showed significant positive correlations with VASI score. Conclusion: Our results support the role of AMA in the pathogenesis of nonsegmental vitiligo, correlating with the disease extent and severity. However, a longitudinal study in a large cohort of patients to evaluate the clinical and predictive value of AMA is warranted.

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