Indian Journal of Dermatology
  Publication of IADVL, WB
  Official organ of AADV
Indexed with Science Citation Index (E) , Web of Science and PubMed
Users online: 2955  
Home About  Editorial Board  Current Issue Archives Online Early Coming Soon Guidelines Subscriptions  e-Alerts    Login  
    Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Print this page Email this page
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 378-385

Barriers for Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence and Viral Suppression in Members of the Key Population in Mumbai, India: Implications for Interventions

1 Mumbai Districts AIDS Control Society, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 LINKAGES, FHI360, Delhi, India
3 Consultant Dermatologist and Epidemiologist, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Maninder Singh Setia
Dermatology and Epidemiology, Consultant Dermatologist and Epidemiologist, Mumbai
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijd.IJD_640_20

Rights and Permissions

Background: Poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with poor virologic control and drug resistance in people living with HIV/AIDS. Some barriers to ART adherence are cost, lack of information, stigma, or dissatisfaction with health services. Aims and Objectives: To study the association between barriers for ART adherence and viral suppression, and explore the role of "missing ART dose" as a potential mediator in high-risk groups. Materials and Methods: Demographic, clinical, and behavioral data from 50 "virally suppressed" (viral load [VL] <1000 copies/ml) and 48 "not suppressed" (VL > 1000 copies/ml) individuals belonging to the key population in Mumbai were collected. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and other characteristics were compared, and mediation analysis was used to identify the mediator in the pathway to viral suppression. Results: Those who had missed their ART at least once in the past three months (37% versus 60%, P = 0.03) and stayed alone were less likely to be virally suppressed (31% versus 69%, P = 0.002). Individuals who had negative perception about ART (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 0.47; P = 0.002), poor ART-related knowledge/behaviors (aOR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.60; P = 0.007), and poor pill taking practices (aOR: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.61; P = 0.01) were significantly less likely to be virally suppressed. The mediation pathway "adherence theme > missed ART in the past three months > viral suppression" was significant in these themes. Conclusions: The factors associated with low viral suppression were knowledge/behaviors, perceptions about ART, and poor pill taking practices. Thus, it is important to provide correct information about ART, its effects, side effects, and potential limitations to marginalized population. Involving brothel keepers and Gurus (head of male-to-female transgendered people/Hijras clans), and technology enabled customized counseling sessions will be helpful.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded38    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal