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E-IJD® - CORRESPONDENCE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 447
Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Cutaneous Warts of Koreans by Sequencing


1 Department of Dermatology, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
2 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Date of Web Publication17-Sep-2021

Correspondence Address:
Sang Seok Kim
Department of Dermatology, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul
Korea
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijd.IJD_617_20

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How to cite this article:
Kim KS, Kim JS, Kim JK, Yang SY, Kim CW, Kim SS. Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Cutaneous Warts of Koreans by Sequencing. Indian J Dermatol 2021;66:447

How to cite this URL:
Kim KS, Kim JS, Kim JK, Yang SY, Kim CW, Kim SS. Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Cutaneous Warts of Koreans by Sequencing. Indian J Dermatol [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 3];66:447. Available from: https://www.e-ijd.org/text.asp?2021/66/4/447/326132




Sir,

Cutaneous warts are a common infectious disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Currently, over 150 types of HPV have been identified. The HPV genotypes frequently found in lesions of cutaneous common warts, in the general population are 1, 2, 4, 27, and 57.[1] It has been reported that high-risk HPV is rarely present in cutaneous warts and may be partially seen in the immunocompromised patients.[2] In our previous study, we investigated the types of HPV present in cutaneous warts observed in Korean patients using the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based restriction fragment mass polymorphism assay. Among the 62 wart samples tested, mucosal HPV (84.4%) was majorly present, most of them belonged to the high-risk HPV (67.2%).[3] Therefore, in this study, attempts were made to detect the type of HPV through different methods and to confirm the presence of the high-risk HPV.

In our study, 104 common wart and plantar wart specimens were obtained through shave biopsy. The specimens were analyzed using the HPV28 detection assay (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) to detect 18 high-risk and 9 low-risk HPV. A whole HPV genotyping was performed through a novel polymerase chain reaction(PCR) method using the FAP59/FAP64 primer. Sanger sequencing was performed with the ABI 3730XL DNA Analyzer (Bioneer, Seoul, Korea) and the sequencing result was analyzed using the DNASTAR package (DNASTAR, Madison, USA).

Out of the 104 patients, HPV type 16 and HPV type 51 were detected in one case each (total 1.9%) using HPV28 detection assay. In addition, 104 samples were subjected to PCR amplification using the FAP59/FAP64 primer. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the results obtained through sequencing. In a total of 104 samples, 67 samples (64.4%) showed HPV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) positive and they were able to do HPV typing. HPV 27 was found in 30 cases (44.8%), HPV 57 was found in 20 cases (29.9%), HPV 65 was found in 9 cases (13.4%), HPV 4 was found in 5 cases (7.5%), and 1 case each of HPV 7, 29, and 94 was found (1.5%). We compared the sex, age, location, type of wart, duration, and the number of warts for each type of HPV. A statically significant association was observed between age and duration of warts at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.002 and 0.014, respectively) with the HPV genera (alpha vs. gamma) [Table 1]. However, this study has some limitations. Although the PCR technique using primers FAP59 and FAP64 enabled detection of the types of HPV and showed high sensitivity, it was optimized to allow detection of less than 10 copies of certain cloned HPV genomes. Moreover, the universal nature of the FAP59/64 primers was satisfactory for most of the epidermodysplasia verruciformis and other cutaneous types. However, only HPV types 1, 2, 41, and 63 could not be detected.[4] Through this study, we were able to identify the various types of HPV present in cutaneous warts in Korean patients. Except for HPV 16 and 51, the high-risk HPV was not seen in many cases.
Table 1: Clinical profiles of all identified HPV types in warts

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Acknowledgement

This research was supported by Hallym University Research Fund 2018 (HURF-2018-32).

Financial support and sponsorship

This research was supported by Hallym University Research Fund 2018 (HURF-2018-32).

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Jablonska S, Majewski S, Obalek S, Orth G. Cutaneous warts. Clin Dermatol 1997;15:309-19.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Chen SL, Tsao YP, Lee JW, Sheu WC, Liu YT. Characterization and analysis of human papillomaviruses of skin warts. Arch Dermatol Res 1993;285:460-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Park SE, Ha JW, Kim CW, Kim SS. Preliminary study of analyzing mucosal human papillomaviruses in cutaneous warts by restriction fragment mass polymorphism. J Dermatol 2017;44:1368-73.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Forslund O, Antonsson A, Nordin P, Stenquist B, Goran Hansson B. A broad range of human papillomavirus types detected with a general PCR method suitable for analysis of cutaneous tumours and normal skin. J Gen Virol 1999;80:2437-43.  Back to cited text no. 4
    



 
 
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