Indian Journal of Dermatology
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 67  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 311

The clinical phenotypes of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central and Southwest Regions of Yemen

1 Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, SE1 9RT, London, UK
2 Department of Dermatology, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, New Jersey, United States
3 Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Taiz University, Taiz, Yemen

Correspondence Address:
Ahlam M Muthanna
Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, SE1 9RT, London
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijd.ijd_81_22

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Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Yemen. CL displays a spectrum of typical and atypical morphologies yet understudied in the central and southwest regions of Yemen. Aims and Objectives: To identify the typical and atypical clinical phenotypes of CL in the central and southwest regions of Yemen. Materials and Methods: A survey of 145 patients who visited Prof. Al-Qubati Clinic in Taiz between 2010 and 2015, was conducted. Results: Children and residents of the rural areas were at high risk of exposure to the insect vector. The typical phenotype was single (67%), facial (58%) and ulcerated nodule (35%). Other usual phenotypes were small ulcers (21.4%) and non-ulcerative papules and nodules (21%). Unusual phenotypes constituted 12% of the cohort and included psoriasiform, eczematous, erysipeloid, lupoid, verrucous, large ulcerative, leishmania recidivens, satellite, granulomatous infiltrative and hyperkeratotic plaques. Mucous membrane involvement was evident in 10.6% and was also polymorphic. Conclusion: CL has many morphologic patterns in central and southwest regions of Yemen, some are clinically deceptive.

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