Indian Journal of Dermatology
  Publication of IADVL, WB
  Official organ of AADV
Indexed with Science Citation Index (E) , Web of Science and PubMed
 
Users online: 5313  
Home About  Editorial Board  Current Issue Archives Online Early Coming Soon Guidelines Subscriptions  e-Alerts    Login  
    Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Print this page Email this page


 
Table of Contents 
QUIZ
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 67  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 475-476
A tender growing lesion on trunk of a middle-aged woman


1 From the Molecular Dermatology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
2 School of Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Kazeroun Branch, Kazeroun, Iran
3 From the Molecular Dermatology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences; Department of Pathology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

Date of Web Publication2-Nov-2022

Correspondence Address:
Maryam Hadibarhaghtalab
Shiraz University of Medical Science, Zand Street, Shiraz-14336-71348
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijd.ijd_1111_20

Rights and Permissions



How to cite this article:
Mohammadreza, Hosseinpour P, Hadibarhaghtalab M, Karami L. A tender growing lesion on trunk of a middle-aged woman. Indian J Dermatol 2022;67:475-6

How to cite this URL:
Mohammadreza, Hosseinpour P, Hadibarhaghtalab M, Karami L. A tender growing lesion on trunk of a middle-aged woman. Indian J Dermatol [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Dec 4];67:475-6. Available from: https://www.e-ijd.org/text.asp?2022/67/4/475/360300





   Case Presentation Top


A healthy 35-year-old woman presented with a tender, growing lesion on her trunk since 2 years ago starting with a sterile pustule that rapidly became painful with violaceous tender borders [Figure 1]. The patient has no history of any underlying medical disease or similar ulcers elsewhere. Skin biopsy was done and histological examination revealed infiltrative tumour with islands and cords of epithelioid cells with vesicular nuclei and prominent nucleoli in which the excision of the lesion was advised [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Tender growing lesion with violaceous borders

Click here to view
Figure 2: (a) Infiltrative tumour with islands and cords of epithelioid cells with vesicular nuclei and prominent nucleoli (haemoglobin and eosin [H&E] ×40). (b) Infiltrative tumour with islands and cords of epithelioid cells with vesicular nuclei and prominent nucleoli (H&E ×200). (c) Infiltrative tumour with islands and cords of epithelioid cells with vesicular nuclei and prominent nucleoli (H&E × 400)

Click here to view



   Question Top


What is the diagnosis?


   Diagnosis Top


Basosquamous cell carcinoma.


   Discussion Top


Basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) is a rare epithelial neoplasm with aggressive behaviours featuring both basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) characteristics and histopathology.[1] Based on the World Health Organization classification of tumours, BSC is described as a BCC with associated SCC differentiation.[2] BSC has reported having an incidence of 1.2% to 2.7% among all skin cancers.[1] Furthermore, BSC commonly arises from the sun-exposed area such as neck and head and rarely on extremities and trunk with predominant occurrence in older males that lasts for few years especially in the seventh decade.[1],[3]

Histopathologically, BSC is defined as a tumour that contains areas of both SCC and BCC with a transitional zone. This transitional zone represents the area of lineage differentiation between the 2 continents. Classical features of BSC include basaloid cell inflammatory islands with palisade nuclei at the periphery. Cells usually form a cluster with a focal aggregation of squamous cells either distributed throughout the lesion or near the centre.[3] BSC has an aggressive local growth pattern and also the risk of metastasis that ranges from 5% to 8.4%.[1] Although the diagnosis is based on skin biopsy, incorrect diagnosis is common due to superficial biopsy. In this case, superficial layers may only present with features of BCC, while deeper layers contain BSC features.

It is believed that BSC may be missed diagnosed with other lesions such as pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) due to its clinical features. PG is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that occurs with nodules or pustules and progressively turns into a painful cutaneous ulcer with tender borders as same as our case. Although both may have similar clinical characteristics, PG is commonly associated with systematic diseases such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and lymphoproliferative disorders in more than half of the cases.[4] PG can occur at any age but it is most commonly occurring in the second to fifth decades of life, whereas BSC generally occurs in seventh decade of life. Moreover, in adults, PG can affect any part of the body but frequently involves lower extremities, while BSC is mostly seen in head and neck area and rarely on extremities. Despite the fact, the diagnosis of PG is clinical; some criteria can help in confirming the diagnosis such as the rapid progression of ulcers and rule out of other causes of cutaneous ulcerations. PG treatment is a combination of local wound care and systemic therapy. The important point in the evaluation of PG is excluding infection and malignancy in our initial workups. As said before, PG has many differential diagnoses and can be mistaken by other conditions. Actual diagnosis can be one of the following: Malignancies, infections, manifestations of autoimmune diseases or connective tissue disorders, vascular diseases, vasculitis, and drug-induced tissue injury.[5]

No specific treatment has yet been identified as the gold standard for BSC. Various treatments are used such as Mohs micrographic surgery, excision, surgery with adjuvant radiation, laser ablation, cryotherapy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and smoothened inhibitors. Moreover, due to the high risk of recurrence and metastasis, close follow-up is indicated in diagnosed cases. Experts use a variety of methods to monitor their patients, including clinical and radiological monitoring.[1]

Learning points

  1. BSC is a rare and aggressive epithelial neoplasm with risk of local recurrence and distant metastases, which mostly occur in sup-exposed areas such as head and neck, but rarely extremities and trunk.
  2. Misdiagnosis of BSC is common due to its various clinical presentations and histopathological features. Clinicians should bear in mind that prompt diagnosis and excision of the tumour can be lifesaving.
  3. BSC might be misdiagnosed as PG due to its progressive growth and tenderness on examination.
  4. BSC in characterized by infiltrative tumour with islands and cords of epithelioid cells with vesicular nuclei and prominent nucleoli histopathologically.


Ethics committee/Institutional review board's permission

We also declare that the study was assessed and approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Review Board and that the letter of approval is available with us for examination.

Ethical statement

The present study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.

Declaration of patient consent

Written Informed consent was obtained from the patient's parents to write and publish her case as a report with accompanying images.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Tan CZ, Rieger KE, Sarin KY. Basosquamous carcinoma: Controversy, advances, and future directions. Dermatol Surg 2017;43:23-31.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
LeBoit PE, International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, International Academy of Pathology, European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer, Universitäts Spital Zürich. Pathology and Genetics of Skin Tumours. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2006.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Costantino D, Lowe L, Brown DL. Basosquamous carcinoma-an under-recognized, high-risk cutaneous neoplasm: Case study and review of the literature. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2006;59:424-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Ruocco E, Sangiuliano S, Gravina AG, Miranda A, Nicoletti G. Pyoderma gangrenosum: An updated review. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2009;23:1008-17.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Ahronowitz I, Harp J, Shinkai K. Etiology and management of pyoderma gangrenosum: A comprehensive review. Am J Clin Dermatol 2012;13:191-211.  Back to cited text no. 5
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
 
 
  Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Article in PDF (1,081 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


   Case Presentation
   Question
   Diagnosis
   Discussion
    References
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed186    
    Printed0    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded13    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal