Indian Journal of Dermatology
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E-IJD® - BASIC RESEARCH
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 67  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 479

Clinical, biochemical, genetic, and therapeutic profile of patients with epidermal necrolysis: A descriptive study


1 From the Department of Anatomy, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Dermat ology and Venereology, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
3 Cornea, Cataract and Refractive Surgery Services, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
4 Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, University of Melbourne, Vision Eye Institute, Melbourne, Australia

Correspondence Address:
Arundhati Sharma
Laboratory of Cyto-Molecular Genetics, Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi - 110 029
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijd.ijd_1089_20

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Background: Epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) is a rare but acute severe drug reaction associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Aims: To describe the clinical, molecular, biochemical, and therapeutic profile of these patients. Methods: A total of 24 acute SJS/TEN patients were recruited during their hospital stay and detailed clinical history and treatment course recorded. Blood samples collected were subjected to DNA and serum separation for molecular and biochemical analysis. Results: Of 24 patients, 18 (75%) were females and six (25%) were males with six SJS, six SJS–TEN overlap, and 12 TEN cases. The inciting drugs were non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (87.50%; n = 21) followed by antibiotics (66.67%; n = 16), antiepileptics (37.50%; n = 9), and others (37.50%; n = 9). Seventeen patients (77.2%) showed skin eruptions within 7 days after drug intake. Different co-morbidities were observed in 22 (91.6%) and 20 (83.3%) patients showed ocular manifestations. Length of hospital stay ranged from 8 to 55 days, 20 (83.3%) patients were treated with corticosteroids, and four (16.6%) received antimicrobial therapy. Interleukin polymorphisms revealed significantly low frequency of IL-4 in the patients, HLA-A locus typing revealed higher frequency of HLA-A*3301 (20.8%), HLA-A*02 (25%), HLA-A*2402 (14.6%), and sera showed raised levels of granulysin and sFas L in the patients compared to controls. Conclusions: The preliminary study illustrates the clinical, molecular, and biochemical features of acute SJS/TEN and provides a better understanding that helps to improve patient care at an earlier stage. It also highlights the use of corticosteroids and antimicrobial therapy for effective treatment of patients.


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